The Integration of the Buddhadhamma for the Administrative Empowerment

Phrasrikamphirayan Somjin


This research is of three objectives : (1) to study the general concepts and theories

of administration and empowerment of the administration, (2) to study Buddhadhamma
for administration and the Buddhist empowerment of the administration, and
(3) to propose the Buddhist integrated model of empowering administration. In this
research, it was not aimed at searching for the new topic but choosing the concepts
and theories that can be harmoniously utilized to form a new integrated model.
The result of the research is as follows:
Buddhadhamma for self-administration is comprised of (1) Gharāvāsa-Dhamma-
Sacca: truth and honesty, Dama: taming and training, Khanti: tolerance, Cāga: liberality,
(2) Gāthākāslak-not to associating with fools, to associating with the wise, always doing
good, thinking of impermanence, (3) Suppurisa-dhamma-Atthaññutā: knowing oneself,
Mattaññutā: knowing how to be temperate, Buddhadhamma for man-administration is
comprised of (1) Brahmavihāra-Metta: loving-kindness, Karuṇā: compassion, Muditā:
sympathetic joy in other’s successfulness, Upekkhā: equanimity, (2) Saṅgahavatthu-
Dāna: giving support to other, Piyavācā: speaking kindly words, Atthacariyā: rendering
services, and Samānattatā: participation and behaving oneself properly in all
circumstances, (3) Sāraṇīyadhamma-Mettākāyakamma: bodily giving service to others
including offering bodily respect, Mettāvacīkamma: giving amiable instruction and
warning, Mettāmanokamma: always showing amiable thought to others, Sādhāraṇabhogitā:
sharing any lawful gains with virtuous fellows, Sīlasāmaññatā: keeping without blemish
the rules of conduct along with one’s fellows, and Diṭṭhisāmaññatā: being endowed
with right views along with one’s fellows, (4) Suppurisa-dhamma-Parisaññutā: knowing
the assembly and the manner to act to such an assembly, Puggalaññutā: knowing the
different individual and the way to deal with such an individual, Buddhadhamma for
work-administration is comprised of (1) Iddhipāda-Chanda: aspiration, willing to do
a good thing, Viriya: perseverance, never giving up, Citta: having an active mind
and Vimasā: investigating through wisdom to acquire the way in dealing with things,
(2) Vajjī-aparihāniyadhamma: holding regular and frequent meetings, meeting together
in harmony, doing their business and duties in harmony, introducing no revolutionary
ordinance, breaking up no established ordinance, abide by the original norm and 

principles, honour and respect the elders among the Vajjians and deem them worthy
of listening to, the women and girls of the families are to dwell without being forced
and abducted, honour and worship the Vajjians shrines, monuments and objects of
worship, both in central and provincial areas, providing the rightful protection, shelter
and support for the Arahants, (3) Suppurisa-dhamma-Dhammaññutā: knowing the law,
principle and logic, Attaññutā: knowing the meaning and desirous advantage yielded
by action, Kālaññutā: knowing the proper time to be spent in administrating such works.
These are the Buddhadhamma for administration.
In order to effectively implement the Buddhadhamma in administration, a man
as the most essential resource must be empowered by following the Threefold Training
so as to purify his mind which will render him a more energy in thinking, speaking and
acting than general people. Those who get themselves trained by means of the Threefold
Training, possessing a strong faith as a result of the proper scrutiny and energy based
on the right effort will not give up despite the numberless hindrances. He will be
determined in administrating by the help of the existing continuous mindfulness; neither
pleasant nor unpleasant object can affect his mind. Based on that state, his mind becomes
mindful, possessing the attainment concentration, absorption and meditative attainments
which will give rise to the wisdom in viewing the world and phenomena as they really
are. Since the organization-administration is done under the worldly conditions then if
the life is not strongly founded, its balance could be uprooted, the pleasant object
including the most pleasant mind one gets may cause unmindfulness, the unpleasant
object including the most unpleasant mind one gets may also cause unmindfulness.
Such an unmindfulness is called ‘the failed life or the lost guardian spirit’, the
extraordinary state called mundane superknowledges (it may lead to supramundane
superknowledges) derived from training through the Threefold Training becomes
a strong foundation of life, once the life possesses the immunity, steadiness and
superpower, it will deal with all works effectively and successfully.
Many other scholars’ concepts and theories are similar and different from
Buddhadhamma, Lao Tzu, for instance; he talked about self-emptiness, being void of
desire, having in outward deportment a gentle tenderness and modesty based on 

the motto ‘one who stands on tiptoe does not last longer’, one should make oneself
like water, administering work by means of the more loving-kindness than the force.
Confucius laid the great emphasis on education; the administrator must study and
accumulate a large number of experiences taking this principle into account that ‘It is
better to travel thousand miles than to read ten thousand books’. Chinese people in
ancient time paid special attention to the growth making people to have (1) the generous
mind like the sky, (2) the steadiness like the earth and mountain, (3) the calmness like
the water in the great river. Jack Welch emphasizes work-administration by not clinging
to any particular form but by continuously adjusting the form of administration to suit
the situations concerned, employees are made to familiarize and encourage in challenging
the leader’s ideas. The continuity of teamwork based on what one can perform his job
better is supported. In this respect, he said that ‘one cannot do what one is of incapacity’.
The same method has been utilized by Edward de Bono in encouraging colleagues
to arrive at the creativity by breaking out of the established pattern in order to look at
things in a different way. Stephen R. Covey’s concept in administration is about
the initiative and responsibility. These two are not influenced by the external environment.
One should help each other in order to build familiarity and trust; this is called
‘the Emotional Bank Account’. Steve Jobs was inspired by the mindfulness of death
and mindfulness on breathing in Buddhism while working; the best time is the present
time and the real miracle is in daily life. Steve Jobs’ principle is in accord with the last
word of the Buddha before passing away “Behold now, brethren, I exhort you, saying,
“Decay is inherent in all component things, Work out your salvation with diligence”.
In the same time the administrator should act as if he is a knowledge-hunger and keen
on learning all the times.

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